Research


Today, the University of South Africa (UNISA) launched a new learning centre in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Ethiopian news highlighted the features of UNISA in Addis and also aired parts of Meles Zenawi’s speech at the launch. He said: “Ethiopians must always remember and appreciate that for one Ethiopian to attend one South African has foregone the opportunity to do so.” Wish I had more clarification on that point. (Come to think of it, wish I had more clarification on most of Zenawi’s points.)

Here’s the article from UNISA online:

UNISA will launch a new regional Learning Centre in Ethiopia, a first of its kind outside the borders of South Africa.

The event will be held in the capital city of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, on 28 January 2007. The Centre will be officially opened by His Excellency, Mr Meles Zenawi, Prime Minister of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. The President of the Republic of South Africa, Mr Thabo Mbeki, will deliver a keynote speech at the event.

The Learning Centre will serve as a registration point and will offer academic support services such as career guidance, orientation skills development and tutorial classes.

The establishment of the Learning Centre was a culmination of the Memorandum of Agreement signed by UNISA and the Government of Ethiopia in August 2006 for the establishment of a learning centre in Addis Ababa.

As part of the agreement, UNISA will also offer in-service training for the Ethiopian government officials, civil servants, staff of international organisations and non-governmental organisations. The focus of UNISA’s programmes will mainly be on postgraduate qualifications.

The Centre will eventually be the hub for all of UNISA’s programmes in the Horn of Africa and in the Eastern Africa regions. The establishment of this Learning Centre in Ethiopia is part of the University’s vision of becoming Africa’s premier education provider that serves the continent by responding to the needs of the communities.

UNISA is currently involved in a major project of capacity building for the government of Southern Sudan. The Centre might be used for future training for the people of Southern Sudan, neighbouring state of Ethiopia.

With a population of 77 million people, Ethiopia is the second most populated sub-Saharan African country and is the political headquarters of Africa as it hosts head offices of the African Union and United Nations Economic Commission for Africa.

The telephone numbers for the UNISA Learning Centre in Addis Ababa are: 00-251-11-435 0078 or 00-251-11-435 0079 or 00-251-11-435 0080 (direct line for the Regional Director: Prof. Ramose).

I think African Studies in all (not just Western) universities need revitalization – Big Time!

I have been saying this since my second year of undergrad but the powers that be aren’t listening to me! And I’m not the only one ranting. Some of my friends in undergraduate and graduate studies are saying the same thing. They have approached the Big Bureaus in their universities and have gotten petitions signed (University of Toronto, University of British Columbia) but there is little update, or the procedure is so bogged in bureaucracy that by the time the student advocates are done thier undergraduate career, the newbies are unacquainted or there is little follow-up, etc. so that administration doesn’t have to deal with the issue anymore:

We need more! More studies on Africa, More relevant courses, More professors, More & deeper topics, More language courses (some are now teaching Swahili and apparently by next academic term, Somali will be taught at New College, U of T – if anyone knows where other language courses are being taught, please inform), More Study Groups, More Analysis…More More More.

There’s good reason for the revitalization (and in some cases, introduction) of African Studies in Universities. Mostly my concern is that “African studies” gets put into the category of “Area Studies” and does not get the inter- and multi-disciplinary rigour it deserves. Although some courses may include topics/articles/materials regarding the continent, it’s just not enough.

I once asked my undergraduate professor and thesis supervisor, Dr. Nibaldo Galleguillos, about why they had no African courses at McMaster University and why there is very little content regarding Africa in the courses and why there is only one course (his) on Latin America, and do you know what he said to me, “Priorities, Helen.”

Here’s to a shift in priorities: Africa is the largest refugee producing continent in the world. Millions of aid dollars, much poorly spent, go to the continent. Governance is lacking. Institutional capacity, lacking. Development agenda by corporate investors and private funders is high priority. Unemployment, in too many countries, is high. HIV/AIDS, you all know the statistics. I find that HIV/AIDS is the only area of studies in health that gives the continent a lot of attention here in the West. But that’s only my perception of course.

There was also a time when a Congolese woman had a severe case of malaria, coming back from Congo after a visit, and the media jumped on it thinking that it was the first case of Ebola in North America. They even published her name in the Washington Post. But nobody talked to the closest Congolese doctor who would have informed the media that Ebola wipes out villages and is spread through human contact, as also noted after the story broke on BBC News.

So as you can see there are real ramifications for not studying a whole continent thoroughly when the world is just getting smaller and smaller. We can describe globalization all we want but there are real life situations that prove over and over that we don’t know as much about each other as we think we do.

Here’s a list of keywords describing what I would like to see more of, and what I think needs more multidisciplinary attention. There’s so much going on in our world that people in universities are not thinking about. We need to stop keeping controversy out of the classrooms!

– African refugees, Western citizenship rights (think burning cars in France 2004, think German citizenship changes in 2004 when German born immigrants were finally granted citizenship)

-Civil Society in Africa. Why not talk about this in undergraduate political science classrooms?

-Integrated health. Traditional healing practices that are widespread and effective. How can these affect our understanding of health care in the West? How can Western technologically based health-care affect practices in Africa? Study the effects of professional transfer programs (i.e. Medicins Sans Frontiers, Sisters of St. Joseph’s are involved in Haiti and Uganda med-student transfer programs). I wrote an article interviewing two doctors who developed the program on www.afrorise.moonfruit.com. I forget the issue # but I think it was January 2004. Will double check.

-African bio-diversity, ecological systems affected by pollution, resource misallocation and political problems.

-Higher Education in Africa. Underfunded, understudied. But there is definately a resurgence in funding from the corporates, so why don’t we track this and see what will happen to those entering post-secondary university on the continent?

-We talk a lot about Brain Drain but rarely do we study it in schools. The World Bank released a 300 page study, how about reading some of that in Economics and Social Studies. Why do a Master’s degree before getting in-depth?

I’ll add more to this list as I get more and more frustrated. 🙂

Self-determination in the information age. It’s a critical matter and affects minority communities in all countries. We all have the issue of what to do with globalized information and ideas; or as coined by Dr. Arjun Appadurai, Ph.D “ideoscapes” and “ethnoscapes”. As a contemporary social-cultural anthropologist, Dr. Appadurai (Wiki) writes on “Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy”. (1990). I read this for a class on Global Governance and Educational Change but you can find a small excerpt on Wiki. What the heck, I’ll post it for you here:

Appadurai articulated a view of cultural activity known as the imaginary (sociology), or the social imaginary. For Appadurai the imaginary is composed of five dimensions of global cultural flow: 1) ethnoscapes; 2) mediascapes; 3) technoscapes; 4) finanscapes; 5) ideoscapes.

He describes the imaginary as: “The image, the imagined, the imaginary – these are all terms that direct us to something critical and new in global cultural processes: the imagination as a social practice. No longer mere fantasy (opium for the masses whose real work is somewhere else), no longer simple escape (from a world defined principally by more concrete purposes and structures), no longer elite pastime (thus not relevant to the lives of ordinary people), and no longer mere contemplation (irrelevant for new forms of desire and subjectivity), the imagination has become an organized field of social practices, a form of work (in the sense of both labor and culturally organized practice), and a form of negotiation between sites of agency (individuals) and globally defined fields of possibillity. This unleasing of the imagination links the play of pastiche (in some settings) to the terror and coercion of states and their competitors. The imagination is now central to all forms of agency, is itself a social fact, and is the key component of the new global order” (“Disjuncture and Difference”, Modernity at Large, 31).

Similarly, Anthropologist Dr. Victoria Bernal, Ph.D. has written extensively about the Eritrean Diaspora and Eritreans in Cyberspace. The following articles relate to the subject. Click on the link for the Full Text article:

Abstract: In this article I analyse the Eritrean diaspora and its use of cyberspace to theorize the ways transnationalism and new media are associated with the rise of new forms of community, public spheres and sites of cultural production. The struggle for national independence coincided with the rise of the Internet and the Eritrean diaspora has been actively involved in the new state. Eritreans abroad use the Internet as a transnational public sphere where they produce and debate narratives of history, culture, democracy and identity. Through the web the diaspora has mobilized demonstrators, amassed funds for war, debated the formulation of the constitution, and influenced the government of Eritrea. Through their web postings, ‘Internet intellectuals’ interpret national crises, rearticulate values and construct community. Thus, the Internet is not simply about information but is also an emotion-laden and creative space. More than simply refugees or struggling workers, diasporas online may invent new forms of citizenship, community and political practices.

Abstract: For Eritreans in diaspora, identities are deterritorialized, one’s most pressing communication may be with far-flung strangers in cyberspace, and one’s political engagement is centered on a distant homeland. Eritrean experiences, thus, seem to bring together various qualities that scholars have been grappling with trying to chart the implications of the infotech revolution and life on-line, in seeking to understand processes of transnationalism and globalization, and in charting the elusive construction of community in the postmodern age. Through an analysis of the social history of http://www.dehai.org, a website developed by Eritreans in diaspora, explore the ways that new forms of technological and geographical mobility are changing the conditions not just of capitalist production but also of knowledge production and the constitution of publics, public spheres, communities, and nations. [Keywords: cyberspace, public sphere, politics, diaspora, community, conflict, Eritrea]

Likewise, Dr. John Sorensen, Ph.D. worked with the Eritrean Relief Association in Canada; he has a background in anthropology and a PhD from the interdisciplinary Social and Political Thought Program at York University. His field research has concerned African nationalist movements, refugees and diaspora communities and repatriation of Afghan refugees in Pakistan. His books include: African Refugees: Development Aid and Repatriation (Westview), Disaster and Development in the Horn of Africa (Macmillan), Imagining Ethiopia: Struggles for History and Identity in the Horn of Africa (Rutgers University Press), Ghosts and Shadows: Construction of Identity and Community in an African Diaspora (University of Toronto Press) and Culture of Prejudice (Broadview) and he is currently writing on gender and reconstruction of the state in Eritrea, looking at the experience of the thirty-year struggle for independence and the 1998-2000 war with Ethiopia; it is largely based on interviews with women who served in the Eritrean People’s Liberation Front.

Information, Cyberspace and Good Governance

I think the relationship between information and information-management needs to be carefully studied as a subsect of good governance in Africa. I was lucky enough to meet a very bright woman by the name of Azeb Tewolde who works as Director of the Research and Documentation Centre in Eritrea.  (They are re-doing the website – should be complete January 2007 so go back and visit!) This woman is brilliant and very forward-thinking. She is one example of how the “partnership” maxim in development programming and implementation: that individuals and communities know what they need and what works best – but just need some resources and capacity-building– if adhered to by progam planners- would succeed brilliantly. Ms. Tewolde thinks that information management should be the road to development.

Information is capacity-building. Many people tend to politicize everything about Eritrean development – as though any activity is determined by and cloaked in a political affiliation. I guess this is the view that frustrates me. Politics changes, our ideas and sentiments about politicians change given fresh information and events. Our positions are guided by new knowledge. So why, in any regional context, and especially now in the information age, should we put our political allegiances before the information we have at our disposal? Get informed and then make decisions. This is the best (and in my view most responsible) way to be an agent of change in Eritrea and any other developing nation in Africa, Asia, Middle East, etc. The only position I adhere to religiously in development projects is capital “T” Transparency. Be transparent with your people – it’s only fair. The people pay tax, send remittances, pray and hope for development. And in the diaspora, there is an urgency around helping with national development but I think there needs to be a broad-based discussion (I’m scared to use the D-word, democratic) and needs assessment on how, when, why, where and with whom and what purpose this development assistance should take place. The government can lead us, the diaspora can lead us, the international community can lead us – with collaborative work this all happens simultaneously. The diaspora is a major voice in this discussion and the internet is a major tool.